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Waste Generation

Waste generation refers to the quantity of materials that enter the waste stream before being sorted and distributed for landfilling, recycling, composting, or incinerating. 

Waste Minimisation

Waste minimisation refers to measures or techniques, such as recycling or composting that reduce the quantity of waste generated during industrial processes, and minimise waste to landfill.

Waste Reduction

Waste Reduction is centred around the notion of eliminating unnecessary waste. 

Many of us discard unwanted materials and waste without considering alternative actions. Waste Reduction can be achieved through six key strategies: Reduce, Refuse, Reuse, Recycle, Repurpose and Rethink.

Waste Reduction - Sustainability Standard

Waste Reduction is a sustainability standard that an trader might claim. 

Traders who are committed to waste and water recycling have implemented systems that can capture waste & water and either recycle it or use it directly on gardens.

These trader either use waste reduction in their own businesses or sell products or services that enable others to reduce waste.

Waste Stream

Waste stream refers to the complete flow of waste from homes, businesses, institutions, and industry through to final disposal.  The application of recycling or composting processes may reduce the amount of waste disposed of in landfills.

Waste Treatment

Waste treatment refers to the various physical, chemical, biological or thermal processes required at a waste treatment facility to ensure that waste has a minimal environmental impact.  Solid materials, wastewater, agricultural wastewater, industrial wastewater, sewage and radioactive materials are all subject to waste treatment prior to final disposal.


Wastewater refers to any water that has been used and affected in quality by dissolved or suspended waste materials.  This includes used water from households, businesses, agriculture, industry or the general community. 

Wastewater Treatment Plant

A wastewater treatment plant is an industrial facility containing a series of tanks, screens, filters, and other processes designed to remove biological or chemical waste products from water.  Wastewater treatment plants functions includes agricultural wastewater treatment, sewage treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Treatments generally include chlorination to achieve safe drinking water standards.

Water (independent supply) - Sustainability Credential

Water (independent supply) is a sustainability credential that an Across the Fence trader might claim. Traders who use independent water supplies collect rainwater or use bore water to run business activities. Using independent water supplies is beneficial as the water is local and there is no energy wasted in water transportation. Using independent water supplies also allows the business to control the addition of chemicals to the water.

Water Conservation

Water conservation involves the application of policies, strategies and plans for the protection, development, and efficient management of freshwater as a sustainable resource. The conservation of water is essential to meet current and future demands for water.  Factors that influence water consumption include population growth, manufacturing, agricultural practices and climate change.

Water Efficiency Self Certified - Sustainability Standard

Water efficiency is a sustainability standard that an trader might claim. 

Water efficiency products & services help you to either significantly reduce the amount of water you use or waste; or make the water you use more productive.

Water Efficient Fittings

Water efficient fittings refer to products such as water saving showerheads, low flow tap devices and hot water diverters. These fittings help to reduce water use and significantly reduce energy use from hot water heating.

Water Footprint

The water footprint of an individual, organisation or business refers to the total amount of freshwater used directly or indirectly to produce the goods and services consumed within society.

Water Pollution

Water pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater, with chemicals or other foreign substances that can harm humans, animals and ecosystems.  Water pollution is a result of pollutants being directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without prior treatments to remove contaminants.

Water Well

Water well refers to bored, drilled or driven shaft, or dug hole created to access underground water supplies.  Water wells are operated using a pump, or manually or mechanically using containers or buckets.  Wells vary in size, depth, water volume and quality.


A watershed is a region or land area over which water drains into a stream, lake, reservoir, river or other surface waterways.  The watershed for a major river may include various minor watersheds that ultimately meet at a common point.

Wave Energy

Wave energy refers to electricity that is generated by the movement of ocean waves.  In oceans where the wind blows consistently and provides continuous waves, wave power devices can extract energy from the surface motion of the waves and from pressure fluctuations below the ocean’s surface.


Wetlands refer to land habitats that are saturated by surface or groundwater, and are often abundant in vegetation and animal life.  Examples of wetland habitats include swamps, marshes, shallow lakes, bogs, fens, coasts, estuaries and flood plains.


Wilderness refers to natural land habitat that remains unmodified by human activity.  Wilderness areas can be found in national and state parks, rivers and agricultural zones.  These areas are valued for biodiversity, ecological studies, conservation, and recreational qualities.

Wildlife Refuge

A wildlife refuge is an undisturbed habitat designated for the protection of specific species of fish or wildlife, where hunting and fishing are either prohibited or strictly controlled.

Wind Breaks

Wind breaks refer to the practice of planting rows of trees and shrubs to protect fields from soil erosion and to provide shelter from the wind.  Wind breaks are generally planted on the fence line of agricultural areas, and may provide habitat and shelter for animals.

Wind Farm

A wind farm refers to a group of wind turbines used to generate power for producing electricity.  Wind farms are sited in locations where winds prove to be strong and consistent.

Wind Power

Wind power refers to the generation of electricity using wind to power wind turbines.  Wind power is an environmentally-friendly alternative to fossil fuels.  It is abundant in nature, renewable, widely distributed, produces no emissions and requires little land.

Wind Turbine

A wind turbine is a device with a large vaned wheel that converts the kinetic energy of the wind to generate electricity.  Wind turbines may have a horizontal-axis with the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, pointing into the wind, or they may have a vertical-axis with the main rotor shaft arranged vertically.

Windrow Composting

Windrow composting refers to the product of compost by spreading organic materials such as food waste and plant matter into long, semi-circle shaped piles which are mechanically turned using heavy equipment to promote even decomposition.  This system is suited for the production of large quantities of compost.

Wood Pellets

Wood pellets are a type of wood fuel, generally made from compressed biomass such as sawdust, palm kernel shell, coconut shell, and branches leftover from logging.  It is uncertain to what degree the use of wood pellets for heat or electricity production contributes to global warming.

World Environment Day

World Environment Day is an event celebrated each year on 5 June to encourage positive, global environmental action.  It was developed by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1973 and is hosted each year in a different city with a different environmental theme.

World Health Organisation (WHO)

The World Health Organisation (WHO) is a United Nations organisation responsible for directing and coordinating global health matters, leading the health research agenda, providing technical support to countries, and monitoring and assessing health trends.

World Heritage Site

A world heritage site is an area that is recognised by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) for its natural or cultural significance in the international community.   World heritage sites include forests, mountains, lakes, islands, deserts, man-made structures and built environments.

Worm Farm

A worm farm is similar to a compost bin, as it is used as a waste disposal system for organic matter such as food scraps and plant material.  The worm farm structure is different to a compost bin, as it is a large box or container with perforated trays inside where the worms live, breed and consume organic matter.   This structure is positioned off the ground with supportive legs, and has solid base located at the bottom of the container with a tap to release the worm liquid (worm wee) that accumulates.  This worm liquid can be used on the garden as a natural fertiliser.