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Factory Farming

Factory farming refers to the large-scale, industrialised raising of livestock for the production of eggs, meat and milk, in confined areas and at a high density.  There are concerns that this type of agriculture is not sustainable or ethical.

Fair Trade

Fair trade is an international trade model and a social movement that supports paying a fair (ethical) price for goods, and maintaining environmental and social standards.  In particular, this relates to exports from developing and Third World nations. There is a trademarked brand name for FLO (Fair Trade Labelling International) to indicate that fair trade products that have been certified by FLO-approved bodies.


Fauna refers to the total animal population living in a particular area.


Flora refers to all the vegetation living in a particular area.

Flow restrictors

Flow restrictors are devices used to limit and divert water flow for optimum use. Flow restrictors can be installed on the taps of a household or business to save water.

Food Chain

A food chain refers to the way all living organisms depend on another living thing as a food source.

Food Miles

Food miles are a measure of the physical transportation distance, in which food travels from its point of origin to the point of sale to the consumer.  The food mile measurement enables the greenhouse gas emissions from one type of food source to be compared with another.

Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ)

Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) is an independent statutory agency established by the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Act 1991 (FSANZ Act). FSANZ is part of the Australian Government's Health portfolio.
FSANZ develops standards that regulate the use of ingredients, processing aids, colourings, additives, vitamins and minerals. The Food Standards Code also covers the composition of some foods, e.g. dairy, meat and beverages as well as foods developed by new technologies such as genetically modified foods. We are also responsible for some labelling requirements for packaged and unpackaged food, e.g. specific mandatory warnings or advisory labels. FSANZ also develops Australia-only primary production and processing standards.


Food Waste

Food waste refers to uneaten food and food preparation waste from households and businesses such as grocery stores, restaurants, markets, industrial kitchens, and employee lunchrooms.

Food waste donation - Sustainability Credential

Food waste donation is a sustainability credential that an Across the Fence trader might claim. Traders displaying this credential donate unused and leftover food to their chosen charities. These traders feed many underprivileged, homeless and other people in need and avoid tonnes of food waste ending up in landfill. Importantly, these traders also respect that by not wasting their food, the energy that has gone into its production isn't wasted either.

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an internationally recognised non-profit organisation that supports sustainable, economically viable and socially beneficial forestry management. Timber can be certified by the FSC if it is verified as being extracted from an FSC certified forest that meets the Principles and Criteria of Forest Stewardship.

Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuels refer to fuel deposits derived from organic matter deposited into the various layers of the earth through the death and accumulation of organic life forms.  Because of this they are considered as non-renewable sources of energy.  They include mainly coal, gas and oil.  When burned, the carbon dioxide from these fuels is released into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming.


Fracking is a slang term for hydraulic fracturing and refers to the process of creating a fracture in a rock layer by injecting fluid into the rock cracks to force them open. The purpose of fracking is to increase the extraction rates and ultimate recovery of oil and natural gas. 

Free Range

Free range refers to a method of growing livestock where animals are free to walk and move within a farm area rather than being caged.


Freshcare is an Australian on–farm assurance program. Freshcare provide food safety and quality as well as environmental certification services.

Freshwater Conservation

Freshwater conservation refers to the concerted effort to protect freshwater systems such as lakes, rivers and streams. Freshwater is a valuable resource, as it is used for crop production, fishing, industry, markets and household use.

Fuel Cell

A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel such as hydrogen, into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent, to produce electricity with heat and water vapour as byproducts.


Fungicides refer to chemical compounds (pesticides) or biological organisms which are used to control, prevent, or destroy fungi.

Fungus (Fungi)

Fungus or fungi refer to yeast, moulds, mildews, and mushrooms. Some of these organisms grow in soil, while others attach themselves to decaying trees and vegetation where they obtain nutrients. Some fungi are pathogens, and others play a role in stabilising sewage or digesting composted waste.